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3.2.2 Temperature, Temperature Difference, and Humidity

The siting and exposure criteria for temperature, temperature difference and humidity are similar. Consequently, these variables are discussed as a group in the following; exceptions are noted as necessary. Probe placement

Ambient temperature and humidity should be measured at 2 m, consistent with the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) standards for ambient measurements [9]. Probe placement for temperature difference measurements depend on the application.. For use in estimating surface layer scaling parameters (Section 6.6.4), the temperature difference should be measured between 20z0 and 100z0; the same recommendation applies to temperature difference measurements for use in estimating the P-G stability category using the solar radiation delta-T method (Section For use in estimating stable plume rise, temperature difference measurements should be made across the plume rise layer, a minimum separation of 50 m is recommended. For sites that experience large amounts of snow, adjustments to the temperature measurement height may be necessary, however, the ambient temperature measurement should not extend above 10 m. For analysis of cooling tower impacts, measurements of temperature and humidity should also be obtained at source height and within the range of final plume height. The measurement of temperature difference for analysis of critical dividing streamline height, Hcrit, a parameter used in complex terrain modeling, is discussed in Section 3.3.3. Temperature and humidity sensors should be located over an open, level area at least 9 m in diameter. The surface should be covered by short grass, or, where grass does not grow, the natural earth surface [2, 9]. Instruments should be protected from thermal radiation (from the earth, sun, sky, and any surrounding objects) and adequately ventilated using aspirated shields. Forced aspiration velocity should exceed 3 m/s, except for lithium chloride dew cells which operate best in still air [2]. If louvered shelters are used instead for protection (at ground level only), then they should be oriented with the door facing north (in the Northern Hemisphere). Temperature and humidity data obtained from naturally-ventilated shelters will be subject to large errors when wind speeds are light (less than about 3 m/s).

Temperature and humidity sensors on towers should be mounted on booms at a distance of about one diameter/diagonal of the tower (from the nearest point on the tower) [2]. In this case, downward facing aspiration shields are necessary. Obstructions

Temperature and humidity sensors should be located at a distance of at least four times the height of any nearby obstruction and at least 30 m from large paved areas [2], [15]. Other situations to avoid include: large industrial heat sources, rooftops, steep slopes, sheltered hollows, high vegetation, shaded areas, swamps, areas where frequent snow drifts occur, low places that hold standing water after rains, and the vicinity of air exhausts (e.g., from a tunnel or subway) [2, 9]. Siting considerations

In siting temperature sensors, care must be taken to preserve the characteristics of the local environment, especially the surface. Protection from thermal radiation (with aspirated radiation shields) and significant heat sources and sinks is critical. Siting recommendations are similar for humidity measurements, which may be used for modeling input in situations involving moist releases, such as cooling towers. For temperature difference measurements, sensors should be housed in identical aspirated radiation shields with equal exposure.

 3.1 Representativeness 
     3.1.1 Objectives for Siting 
     3.1.2 Factors to Consider  
 3.2 Simple Terrain Locations 
     3.2.1 Speed and Wind Direction  
     3.2.2 Temperature, Temperature Difference, and Humidity
     3.2.3 Precipitation  
     3.2.4 Pressure 
      3.2.5 Radiation 
 3.3 Complex Terrain Locations  
     3.3.1 Wind Speed  
     3.3.2 Wind Direction 
     3.3.3 Temperature Difference 
  3.4 Coastal Locations
 3.5 Urban Locations 
 3.6 Recommendations

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