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2.1.2 Vane-oriented and Fixed-mount Propeller Anemometers

The vane-oriented propeller anemometer usually consists of a two, three or four-baldedpropeller which rotates on a horizontal pivoted shaft that is turned into the wind by a vane. Most current versions of this type of anemometer use propellers that are based on a modified helicoid. The dynamic characteristics of the vane should be matched with those of the propeller.

There are several propeller anemometers which employ lightweight molded plastic or polystyrene foam for the propeller blades to achieve threshold speeds of 0.5 m/s. This type of anemometer may be applied to collecting mean wind speeds for input to models to determine dilution estimates and/or transport estimates. Because of their relatively quick response times, some having distance constants of about one meter, these sensors are also suitable for use in determining the standard deviation of the along-wind-speed fluctuations,  u . Care should be taken, however, in selecting a sensor that will provide an optimal combination of such characteristics as durability and sensitivity for the particular application.

The variation of output speed with the approach angle of the wind follows nearly a  cosineresponse for some helicoid propeller anemometers. This relationship permits the use of two orthogonal fixed-mount propellers to determine the vector components of the horizontal wind. A third propeller with a fixed mount rotating about a vertical axis may be used to determine the vertical component of the wind, and also the standard deviation of the vertical wind, w . It should be noted that deviation of the response from a true cosine for large approach angles (e.g., 80-90) may lead to underestimations of the vertical wind component without special calibration of the output signal. Users of vertical propeller anemometers should consult with the manufacturer on proper handling of the data.

2. PRIMARY METEOROLOGICAL VARIABLES 
 2.1 Wind Speed
      2.1.1 Cup Anemometers
      2.1.2 Vane-oriented and Fixed-mount Propeller Anemometers 
      2.1.3 Wind Speed Transducers 
  2.2 Wind Direction 
      2.2.1 Wind Vanes  
      2.2.2 U-V and UVW Systems  
      2.2.3 Wind Direction Transducers 
      2.2.4 Standard Deviation and Turbulence Data  
  2.3 Temperature and Temperature Difference 
      2.3.1 Classes of Temperature Sensors  
      2.3.2 Response Characteristics  
      2.3.3 Temperature Difference 
      2.3.4 Sources of Error 
  2.4 Humidity  
      2.4.1 Humidity Variables  
      2.4.2 Types of Instrumentation  
  2.5 Precipitation 
  2.6 Pressure  
  2.7 Radiation  
  2.8 Recommendations


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