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2.1.3 Wind Speed Transducers

There are several mechanisms that can be used to convert the rate of the cup or propellerrotations to an electrical signal suitable for recording and/or processing. The four mostcommonly used types of transducers are the DC generator, the AC generator, the electrical-contact, and the interrupted light beam. Many DC and AC generator types of transducers in common use have limitations in terms of achieving low thresholds and quick response times. Some DC generator transducers are limited because the combined effect of brush and bearing friction give a threshold speed above 0.5 m/s (above 1.0 mph). However, some anemometers employ miniaturized DC generators which allow thresholds below 0.5 m/s to be achieved. The AC generator transducers eliminate the brush friction, but care must be exercised in the design of the signal conditioning circuitry to avoid spurious oscillations in the output signal that may be produced at low wind speeds. Electrical-contact transducers are used to measure the “run-of-the-wind”;i.e., the amount of air (measured as a distance) passing a fixed point in a given timeinterval; wind speed is calculated by dividing run-of-the-wind measurements by the time interval.

The interrupted light beam (light chopping) transducer is frequently used in air quality applications because of the lower threshold that can be achieved by the reduction in friction. This type of transducer uses either a slotted shaft or a slotted disk, a photo emitter and a photo detector. The cup or propeller assembly rotates the slotted shaft or disk, creating a pulse each time the light passes through a slot and falls on the photo detector. The frequency output from this type of transducer is handled in the same way as the output from an AC generator. Increasing the number of slots to about 100, thereby increasing the pulse rate, eliminates signal conditioning problems which may arise with lower frequencies. The frequency output from an AC generator or a light chopping transducer may be transmitted through a signal conditioner and converted to an analog signal for various recording devices, such as a continuous strip chart or a multi point recorder, or through an analog-to-digital (A/D) converter to a microprocessor type of digital recorder. Several modern data loggers can accept the frequency type signal directly, eliminating the need for additional signal conditioning. The recording and processing of the data are covered in more detail in Sections 4.0 and 6.0, respectively.

 2.1 Wind Speed
      2.1.1 Cup Anemometers
      2.1.2 Vane-oriented and Fixed-mount Propeller Anemometers 
      2.1.3 Wind Speed Transducers 
  2.2 Wind Direction 
      2.2.1 Wind Vanes  
      2.2.2 U-V and UVW Systems  
      2.2.3 Wind Direction Transducers 
      2.2.4 Standard Deviation and Turbulence Data  
  2.3 Temperature and Temperature Difference 
      2.3.1 Classes of Temperature Sensors  
      2.3.2 Response Characteristics  
      2.3.3 Temperature Difference 
      2.3.4 Sources of Error 
  2.4 Humidity  
      2.4.1 Humidity Variables  
      2.4.2 Types of Instrumentation  
  2.5 Precipitation 
  2.6 Pressure  
  2.7 Radiation  
  2.8 Recommendations

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