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 E method

The E method (Tables 6-8a and 6-8b) is a turbulence-based method which uses the standard deviation of the elevation angle of the wind in combination with the scalar mean wind speed.

The criteria in Table 6-8a and Table 6-8b are for data collected at 10m and a roughness length of 15 cm. Wind speed and direction data collected within the height range from 20z0 to 100z0 should be used. For sites with very low roughness, these criteria are slightly modified. The lower bound of measurement height should never be less than 1.0 m; the upper bound should never be less than 10 m. To obtain 1-hour averages, the recommended sampling duration is 15 minutes, but it should be at least 3 minutes and may be as long as 60 minutes. The relationships employed in the estimation methods assume conditions are steady state. This is more easily achieved if the sampling duration is less than 30 minutes.

Table 6-8a
Vertical Turbulence Criteria for Initial Estimate of Pasquill-Gifford (P-G) Stability Category.  For use with Table 6-7b.
Initial estimate of P-G stability categoryStandard deviation of wind elevation angle E (degrees)
B10.0 E < 11.5
C7.8 E < 10.0
D5.0 E < 7.8
E2.4 E < 5.0
FE < 2.4

a As indicated by the standard deviation of the elevation angle of the wind vector, Sigma-E are aliases for

Table 6-8b
Wind Speed Adjustments for Determining Final Estimate of P-G Stability
Category from
E . For use with Table 6-8a.
 Initial Estate of P-G Category10-meter wind speed (m/s)Final Estimate of P-G Category


Au < 3A
A3 u < 4B
A4 u <6C
A6 uD
Bu < 4B
B4 u < 6C
B6 uD
Cu < 6C
C6 uD
D, E, or F ANYD
Eu < 5E
E5 uD
Fu < 3F
F3 u < 5E
F5 uD

If the site roughness length is other than 15 cm, the category boundaries listed in Table 6-8a may need to be adjusted. As an initial adjustment, multiply the Table 6-8a values by:

(Z0 / 15)O.2

where zo is the site roughness in centimeters. This factor, while theoretically sound, has not had widespread testing. It is likely to be a useful adjustment for cases when zo is greater than 15 cm. It is yet problematical whether the adjustment is as useful for cases when zo is less than 15 cm.

If the measurement height is other than 10 m, the category boundaries listed in Table 6-8a will need to be adjusted. As an initial adjustment, multiply the lower bound values by:


where Z is the measurement height in meters. The exponent P is a function of the P-G stability category with values as follows:

P-G StabilityP

The above suggestions summarize the results of several studies conducted in fairly ideal circumstances. It is anticipated that readers of this document are often faced with conducting analyses in less than ideal circumstances. Therefore, before trusting the Pasquill category estimates, the results should be spot checked. This can easily be accomplished. Choose cloudless days. In mid-afternoon during a sunny day, categories A and B should occur. During the few hours just before sunrise, categories E and F should occur. The bias, if any, in the turbulence criteria will quickly be revealed through such comparisons. Minor adjustments to the category boundaries will likely be needed to tailor the turbulence criteria to the particular site characteristics, and should be made in consultation with the reviewing agency.

  6.1 Averaging and Sampling Strategies 
  6.2 Wind Direction and Wind Speed 

      6.2.1 Scalar Computations 
      6.2.2 Vector Computations 
      6.2.3 Treatment of Calms  
      6.2.4 Turbulence 
      6.2.5 Wind Speed Profiles  
  6.3 Temperature 
6.3.1 Use in Plume-Rise Estimates  
      6.3.2 Vertical Temperature Gradient 
  6.4 Stability 
      6.4.1 Turner's method  
      6.4.2 Solar radiation/delta-T (SRDT) method 
      6.4.3  E method 
      6.4.4 Amethod 
      6.4.5 Accuracy of stability category estimate
  6.5 Mixing Height 
      6.5.1 The Holzworth Method  
  6.6 Boundary Layer Parameters  
      6.6.1 The Profile Method 
      6.6.2 The Energy Budget Method  
      6.6.3 Surface Roughness Length 
      6.6.4 Guidance for Measurements in the Surface Layer 
  6.7 Use of Airport Data 
6.8 Treatment of Missing Data  
      6.8.1 Substitution Procedures 
  6.9 Recommendations

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