www.webMET.com - your meteorological resource center
United States
EPA Models
Wind Rose
Met Station
Met Monitoring Guide
Met Data
Digital Terrain Data
Met Facts
About WebMET.com
Contact Us

8.3.2 Signal Conditioner and Recorder Check

For routine calibration of measurement circuits and recorders, use the manufacturer's recommendations. The outputs required by the test described in must be reflected in the recorded values. Wind speed is used as an example in this section. Other variables will have different units and different sensitivities but the principle is the same. For sub-system checks, use the manual for specific guidance.

Analog system

Some systems contain "calibration" switches which are designed to test the stability of the circuits and to provide a basis for adjustment if changes occur. These should certainly be exercised during routine calibrations when data loss is expected because of calibration. In the hierarchy of calibrations, wind tunnel is first, known rate of rotation is second, substitute frequency is third and substitute voltage is fourth. The "calibration" switch is either third or fourth.

If analog strip chart recorders are used, they should be treated as separate but vital parts f the measurement system. They simply convert voltage or current to a mark on a time scale printed on a continuous strip of paper or composite material. The output voltage or current of the signal conditioner must be measured with a calibrated meter during the rate of rotation challenge. A simple transfer function, such as 10 m/s per volt, will provide verification of the measurement circuit at the output voltage position. The recorder can be challenged separately by inputting known voltages and reading the mark on the scale, or by noting the mark position when the rate of rotation and output voltage are both known. See the recorder manual for recommendations should problems arise.

This special concern with recorders results from the variety of problems which analog recorders can introduce. A good measurement system can be degraded by an inappropriate recorder selection. If resolution is inadequate to distinguish between 1.3 m/s and 1.5 m/s, a 0.2 m/s accuracy is impossible. If enough resolution is just barely there, changes in paper as a function of relative humidity and changes in paper position as it passes the marking pen and excessive pen weight on the paper can be the limit of accuracy in the measurement. If the strip chart recorder is used only as a monitor and not as a backup for the primary system, its accuracy is of much less importance. The recorder from which data are recovered for archiving is the only recorder subject to measurement accuracy specifications.

Digital system

A digital system may also present a variety of concerns to the calibration method. One extreme is the digital system which counts revolutions or pulses directly from the sensor. No signal conditioning is used. All that happens is controlled by the software of the digital system and the capability of its input hardware to detect sensor pulses and only sensor pulses. The same challenge as described in is used. The transfer function used to change rate of rotation to m/s should be found in the digital software and found to be the same as specified by the manufacturer or wind tunnel test. If any difference is found between the speed calculated from the known number of revolutions in the synchronous time period and the speed recorded in the digital recorder, a pulse detection problem is certain. A receiving inspection test may not uncover interference pulses which exist at the measurement site. For solution of this type of problem, see the digital recorder manufacturer's manual or recommendations.

A digital data logger may present different concerns. It may be a device which samples voltages, averages them, and transfers the average to a memory peripheral, either at the site or at the end of a communication link. Conversion to engineering units may occur at almost any point. The routine calibration should look at the output voltage of a signal conditioner as a primary point to assess accuracy of measurement. Analog to digital conversion, averaging and transmission and storage would be expected to degrade the measurement accuracy very little. Such functions should contribute less than 0.05 m/s uncertainty from a voltage input to a stored average value. If greater errors are found when comparing known rates of rotation and known signal conditioning output voltages to stored average wind speed values, check the data logger manual for specifications and trouble-shooting recommendations.

8.1 Instrument Procurement 
     8.1.1 Wind Speed 
     8.1.2 Wind Direction  
     8.1.3 Temperature and Temperature Difference 
     8.1.4 Dew Point Temperature 
     8.1.5 Precipitation 
     8.1.6 Pressure 
     8.1.7 Radiation  
 8.2 Installation and Acceptance Testing
     8.2.1 Wind Speed 
     8.2.2 Wind Direction  
     8.2.3 Temperature and Temperature Difference 
     8.2.4 Dew Point Temperature 
     8.2.5 Precipitation 
     8.2.6 Pressure
     8.2.7 Radiation
  8.3 Routine Calibrations  
8.3.1 Sensor Check  
      8.3.2 Signal Conditioner and Recorder Check  
     8.3.3 Calibration Data Logs 
     8.3.4 Calibration Report  
     8.3.5 Calibration Schedule/Frequency 
     8.3.6 Data Correction Based on Calibration Results  
  8.4 Audits 
     8.4.1 Audit Schedule and Frequency  
     8.4.2 Audit Procedure 
     8.4.3 Corrective Action and Reporting 
  8.5 Routine and Preventive Maintenance 
     8.5.1 Standard Operating Procedures  
     8.5.2 Preventive Maintenance  
 8.6 Data Validation and Reporting  
     8.6.1 Preparatory Steps 
     8.6.2 Levels of Validation  
     8.6.3 Validation Procedures  
     8.6.4 Schedule and Reporting
  8.7 Recommendations

Free Digital
Terrain Data &
GIS Resources

Leading Air Dispersion Modeling & Risk Assessment Software

calpuff view
Advanced Air Dispersion Model


Copyright © 2002 WebMET.com - Disclaimer